Management Ethics and Social Responsibility

 

Management Ethics and Social Responsibility Introduction/Fundamental Concepts

Ethics may be broadly defined as that division of philosophy which deals with questions concerning the nature of value in matters of human conduct. While virtually all people are concerned with making ethical judgments and decisions, philosophers in particular are concerned to explicate the nature of such judgments in general, to provide criteria for determining what is ethically right or wrong, and to analyze the grounds or reasons we have for holding them to be correct.

Those concerned exclusively with telling us what is right or wrong, good or bad, in matters of human conduct may be termed moralist. While philosophers have sometimes been moralists, as philosophers their primary concern is not so much to provide moral prescriptions as it is to explain why what we consider to be “right” or “good” is right or good. To do so, philosophers engaged with such questions have generally sought to formulate and justify ethical theories which are intended to explain the fundamental nature of that which is “good,” why it is “good,” and why the ethical principles which are most commonly used to evaluate human conduct follow (or do not follow) from this theory of that which is good.

While there are of course many words in English (as well as most languages) which refer to positive and negative values, we may simplify our vocabulary by taking the words “good” and “bad” to refer to positive and negative values respectively in judgments with respect to people and things, and “right” or “wrong” to refer to positive and negative values respectively with respect toactions. In this way of speaking, then, a “good person” will simply be one whose actions are “right” by the criteria of whatever ethical theory is the basis of such a judgment.

If we restrict attention to actions, any “action” may be analyzed as involving an actor, the person who does the action, and an end result or outcome of the action. In ethical terminology the actor is called the “agent,” and the end result is the “consequence” of the action.

Ethical theories may be presented for various purposes. Some theories may merely purport to describe what people do, in fact (so it is claimed), consider to be “good” or “right.” Such theories are “descriptive ethical theories” and may be considered “true” or “false” depending on whether or not they do indeed describe correctly what people in fact do consider good or right. Since such descriptive theories are concerned with what people actually do believe and what motivates them to believe what they do, such theories are strictly speaking more the concern of psychology than philosophy, and their acceptability is a matter of whether or not the empirical evidence indicates that what they say about human values is in fact the case. Since they are restricted to telling us whatis the case, descriptive ethical theories cannot serve as the basis for making claims intended to change or persuade people to act or think otherwise than the way they do.

In contrast to descriptive ethical theories, those ethical theories which are intended to justify judgments concerning what people ought or should do (or not do), are called “normative ethical theories.” Normative theories characteristically yield ethical judgments which have in them the key concept of “ought” or “should” (or some such synonym). Their concern is not with what is the case, but with what should be the case; they are concerned not with the “real” (what is so), but with the “ideal” (what ought to be). As such, unlike a purely descriptive theory, a normative theory cannot be “refuted” by appeal to the facts of human behavior, for the defender of a normative claim can always reply, yes, it is true people do not in fact behave this way, but they ought to. Normative theories are not the concern of psychologists, but of philosophers and (typically) moralists. The person who seeks to change, to improve or reform, human behavior must defend a normative theory, and it is this kind of theory which most people have in mind in examining what philosophers have to say about ethics.

 

Ethics and Management

The ethics of a company or organization is a reflection of the ethics of the majority of its members. And when I say members, it is a reflection of personal ethics of each person on the said company or organization which in turn a reflection of the ethical values of an individual. We cannot disregard this because this can be likened to disregarding our own values as a member of the organization.

I agree to the part in the ethics section that states that ethics is not just personal but affects everyone in our surroundings and there will always be conflicts of ethical values because all of us are different. But the good thing that I observe is that the ethical values of a company, or an organization, is like the majority of the ethics of all its members. Yes there will be conflicts but when you look at the ethical values of an organization, it is like the common or should I say the middle ground of all the ethical values of its members. So of my readers might disagree that only management and executive persons in an organization is capable of this because they are the ones in control but I beg to disagree because you will not work for the said person for a long time in the first place if you cannot take the said management’s ethical values. Sooner or later you will leave that person if there is no common meeting of ethical values.

I also like the section “Self-mastery and self awareness” because the root cause of the ethical values of a company or an organization is the ethical values of its members. And the ethical values of its members come from the inner values that its members hold deep in him/her. And the only way to know and form the said values is by self-mastery, knowing yourself, knowing what you want and know what values you hold dear. I would like to quote what I learned from the book “The fifty discipline” that states that personal mastery is the root cause of leadership. If you want to develop your organization, you must develop yourself first.

Also, in my humble opinion, ethics differs from every person and most specifically, in different cultures. We cannot say that Muslims are unethical because they allow multiple wives because for them that is ethically normal. The only thing that

we can do is always look at ourselves and what are our ethical values because we always have a personal choice. If another person or organization has ethical values that are conflicting with our own ethical values we always have a choice not to follow them. Just like the example of cannibalism, if it is really a big no with your ethical values you always have a choice not to eat and simply die quietly but having your ethical values intact. A perfect example of this is Ninoy Aquino which stands firm on his ethical beliefs even if all the people around him is telling that he is wrong. He even has the courage not to eat for days to show his protest to Marcos.

So to wrap my reaction paper, I think ethics for me is always a choice, a personal choice that we always have to make. And this choices always, knowingly or unknowingly influence all the people around us. So for forming someone’s inner values are the most important thing in forming our ethical values and subsequently forming our company or organization’s ethical values.

 

What is Social Responsibility?

Social responsibility is an ethical theory, in which individuals are accountable for fulfilling their civic duty; the actions of an individual must benefit the whole of society. In this way, there must be a balance between economic growth and the welfare of society and the environment. If this equilibrium is maintained, then social responsibility is accomplished.

A teacher’s first moral obligation is to provide excellent instruction. Teachers with a high level of moral professionalism have a deep obligation to help students learn. Teachers with that sense of obligation demonstrate their moral professionalism by coming to work regularly and on time, being well informed about their student-matter, planning and conducting classes with care, regularly reviewing and updating instructional practices, cooperating with, or if necessary, confronting parents of underachieving students, cooperating with colleagues and observing school policies so the whole institution works effectively, and tactfully, but firmly criticizing unsatisfactory school policies and proposing constructive improvement.

 

A teacher has not only to instruct but also to inspire the students; he or she has to influence the life and character of his or her students, and equip them with ideas and values which will fit them to enter the stream of national life as worthy citizens. You have to do all these during the years they are under your influence in the school. The role of a teacher is to shape the minds of the younger generation. That shaping will be on positive lines, development of a scientific and humanistic attitude and temper, self-discipline, concern for other people, an ecological awareness. Teachers must instill into the students ancient cultural spirit of tolerance of different opinions and viewpoints, and acquaint them with the modern wisdom.

A teacher who does not love knowledge cannot inspire love of knowledge in children. The teacher must keep one’s mind fresh by study of new books; he or she must constantly renew one’s stock of knowledge.

It is not enough for a teacher to be aware of social justice issues, she also should discuss these issues with her students. Timely domestic and international topics

 

— including the inequitable distribution of wealth and power, marginalized populations, gender and social inequality, the environment, and social services — should be talked about in a safe, open-minded environment. These discussions will promote tolerance and unbiased thinking in students

A teacher reads new books, acquires new dimensions of knowledge, and becomes enriched with new stock of ideas. That is the way to keep the mind fresh and creative. And this knowledge capacity must be combined with the capacity to communicate knowledge to others. By his or her knowledge, a teacher can only instruct, but communication of inspiration comes only from his or her personality.

 

Managing Company Ethics and Social Responsibilty

Because we have a daily influence on the lives of children, teachers are often held to high standards. In the midst of all of their responsibilities, they’re required to serve as strong role models and demonstrate ethical behaviors as they interact with students, colleagues, parents and others. Developing and following a professional code of ethics helps make sure teachers act in a professional and ethical manner at all times.

A teacher’s job is to provide a quality education to all students. A professional code of ethics must address this fact, stating that teachers must not show favoritism or discriminate against students. Teachers also must interact with students appropriately, not taking advantage of students in any way, bullying students or putting them down. Contact with students outside of the classroom or school building must be kept to a minimum and must focus on school-related activities and events.

In addition to a teacher’s job to help all students learn, a professional code of ethics also addresses a teacher’s responsibility to keep students safe. Teachers must abide by all school and classroom safety procedures to ensure student safety. It’s also a teacher’s responsibility to report instances of bullying and harassment. If a teacher suspects cases of abuse or neglect, or a student confides in a teacher in cases of abuse or neglect, the teacher is required to report it to the proper authorities, even if the student requests otherwise.

Teachers must also maintain ethical behavior in professional practice by accurately representing and maintaining certifications, licenses and other qualifications. Applying for a teaching certificate with false information or lying about meeting the requirements to renew the certificate can lead to a loss of teaching privileges. In addition to qualifications, teachers must practice ethical behavior when it comes to reporting grades and handling assessments. Misrepresenting grades or altering student responses on assessments can lead to criminal charges and the loss of a job.

In a school, teachers must collaborate with administrators, fellow teachers and other employees in order to provide a safe and positive learning experience for students. A teacher must follow the direction of administrators, even if rules or expectations seems unreasonable, in order to avoid undermining an administrator’s authority and to set a positive example for students. When disagreements arise between teachers, they must handle the disagreements in private and refrain from talking negatively about colleagues in front of students. In addition, teachers must engage in appropriate relationships with colleagues, keeping personal feelings and adult behaviors out of the school.

Aside from colleagues, teachers have a responsibility to interact positively with parents and other stakeholders in a child’s education. Contact with parents must be kept professional, free from arguments and physical contact. If a teacher has an issue with a parent, another teacher or administrator must be present during all meetings. Teachers also must avoid being unduly influenced by parents and other stakeholders when it comes to students’ grades or other school-related matters.

Final Examination Management Ethics and Social Responsibility Ethics and Social Responsibility

Teachers’ work covers many things: ethics is one of them. For teachers, ethics is more than just a code of ethics which does no more than codify a set of principles and rules which serve aspirational and/or disciplinary purposes. Teachers, as professionals, are engaged in one of the most ethically demanding jobs, the education of young people; thus it is that teachers need to constantly reflect on the ethics of their activities to ensure that in their work they exhibit the best ethical example possible to those they are morally educating.

If we expect our children to grow up with a respect for the rule of law, (which needs to be seen as fair and equitable for all), then we need to teach them about making moral choices and having a value system as a basis for their decision-making.

Part of this requires a change in the mindset that is prevalent in society, one that says if it is legal and if you can get away with it, then it is acceptable.

In order to make this change requires us to make time in our curriculum, through assemblies and other school activities in order to teach our children to consider issues and behaviour by a moral yardstick rather than more usual measures of success. For without proper ethical considerations, we are in danger of society becoming increasingly fragmented and unstable as self-interest overshadows the public good.

When we talk of someone in such terms of ‘well-educated’, we are defining the term in a very narrow and inadequate way, usually measured by their performance in tests. Clearly, there is something missing in their education, call it humility, empathy, honesty or some similar values. Too often they leave school compromised, half-cooked, despite their academic achievements. Somehow, their otherwise excellent education has let them – and society, down.

We live in an age of everyone for themselves to lesser or greater degree and we’re not going to change that while the public conscience is unregulated, at least not without a significant moral shift.

The current focus on mindfulness on happiness, on well-being and on character is all very well, but there is a more fundamental challenge for our schools.

We don’t seem to be challenging our children enough with the really fundamental questions about how they should live their lives. We cannot put everyone in a single moral universe but we can teach them about cause and consequence, about the value of charity and community and about having values that are not able to be measured in material terms alone.

Before talking of developing grit and resilience, we should be offering the children in our schools an education in morals and values for that would underpin their lives like nothing else.

Being socially responsible is all about individuals having ethically and sensitively towards social, economic and environmental issues. It is a about being accountable for our actions and being conscious of the impact your actions have on others, our communities and the environment.

 

Ethical Challenges in Turbulent Times

Poverty and inequality have long been concerns of development economics. Eradicating poverty and rectifying extreme levels of inequality go hand in hand with economic growth. It is true that a broad-based participation of people in productive activities can increase a nation’s total output of goods and services, and promote economic development. However, poverty and inequality are not just economic issues.    They      are         ethical   issues    as            well.

When we see people suffering from materially and psychologically desperate conditions, we are compelled to act. Poverty is a social challenge, and called on us to work hard to eradicate it. The lack of worldwide access to learning opportunities as a “cultural challenge,” and encouraged us to achieve education for all. The eradication of poverty is supported by equal access to quality education and a fairer society so that everyone who receives education can have more options in their lives and fulfill their aspirations. Universal access to education and a fair society are not just about promoting economic growth. They are about ensuring human dignity. These challenges call upon our sense of ethical responsibility.

Inequality also tests our ethics. Inequality is not just about income gaps.m We may not value the same things in life. People and a society may pursue different paths whose values cannot be compared by a simple measure of how much you possess. Social teaching suggests, we need to have faith in the poor to organize themselves and        choose the                life          they       wish.

Still, an extreme income gap in a society and between societies is alarming because it could erode social cohesion—a basic sense of trust between people who do not know each other. A reasonable degree of social cohesion is needed so that a society (and the world) can function, and for people to have the chance to increase             their      opportunities                in            life.

Again, education is perhaps one of the most important public policies to address inequality and trust. Education can reproduce an unequal society if it is not

offered equally to all. Equal and fair provision of educational services, however, can rectify issues of inequality. Education can also promote bonding of different groups when it draws children of different social, cultural and economic backgrounds. In both cases, a national government plays a critical role, even in this globalized and increasingly borderless world.

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