Managing Human Resources

The importance of human resource management and the Human Resource Management process.  HRM is important for three reasons. First, it can be a signi cant source of competitive advantage. Second, it’s an important part of organizational strategies. Finally, the way organizations treat their people has been found to signi cantly impact organizational performance.

The external influences that affect the human resource management process. 

The external factors that most directly affect the HRM process are the economy, labor unions, legal environment, and demographic trends. The economy aƒects how employees view their work and has implications for how an organization manages its human resources. A labor union is an organization that represents workers and seeks to protect their interests through collective bargaining. In unionized organizations, HRM practices are dictated by collective bargaining agreements. HRM practices are governed by a country’s laws and not following those laws can be costly. Demographic trends such as changes in the racial and ethnic composition of the workforce, retiring Baby Boomers, and an expanding cohort of Gen Y workers will also have implications for HRM practices.

the tasks associated with identifying and selecting competent employees. 

Human resource planning is the process by which managers ensure they have the right number and kinds of capable people in the right places at the right times. A job analysis is part of the assessment process that de nes a job and the behaviors necessary to perform it. A job description is a written statement describing a job and typically includes job content, environment, and conditions of employment. A job speci cation is a written statement that speci es the minimum quali cations a person must possess to successfully perform a given job Employers must cautiously screen potential job applicants. Recruitment is the process of locating, identifying, and attracting capable applicants. Decruitment is an approach to controlling the labor supply when there is a surplus. 

Selection involves predicting which applicants will be successful if hired. A valid selection device is characterized by a proven relationship between the selection device and some relevant criterion. A reliable selection device indicates that it measures the same thing consistently. The different selection devices include application forms, written and performance-simulation tests, interviews, background investigations, and in some cases physical exams. A realistic job preview is important because it gives an applicant more realistic expectations about the job, which in turn should increase employee job satisfaction and reduce turnover.

how companies provide employees with skills and knowledge.?

Orientation is important because it results in an outsider-insider transition that makes the new employee feel comfortable and fairly well adjusted, lowers the likelihood of poor work performance, and reduces the probability of an early surprise resignation. 

The most popular types of training include profession/industry-speci c training, management/supervisory skills, mandatory/compliance information, and customer service training. This training can be provided using traditional training methods (on the job, job rotation, mentoring and coaching, experiential exercises, workbooks/manuals, and classroom lectures) or by technology-based methods (CD/DVD/videotapes/ audiotapes, videoconferencing or teleconferencing, or e-learning).

strategies for retaining competent, high-performing employees.

A performance management system establishes performance standards used to evaluate employee performance. The diferent performance appraisal methods are written essays, critical incidents, graphic rating scales, BARS, multiperson comparisons, MBO, and 360-degree appraisals. The factors that inªuence employee compensation and bene ts include the employee’s tenure and performance, kind of job performed, kind of business/industry, unionization, whether it is labor or capital intensive, management philosophy, geographical location, company pro tability, and size of company. Skill-based pay systems reward employees for the job skills and competencies they can demonstrate. In a variable pay system, an employee’s compensation is contingent on performance.

contemporary issues in managing human resources

Sexual harassment is any unwanted action or activity of a sexual nature that explicitly or implicitly aƒects an individual’s employment, performance, or work environment. Managers need to be aware of what constitutes an ofensive or hostile work environment, educate employees on sexual harassment, and ensure that no retaliatory actions are taken against any person who les harassment charges. Organizations are controlling HR costs by controlling employee health care costs through employee health initiatives (encouraging healthy behavior and penalizing unhealthy behaviors) and controlling employee pension plans by eliminating or severely limiting them.

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